Ellen's Object

This doll belonged to Ellen when she was a child, and it was one of the few items that she took with her to England on the Kindertransport.

Ellen was 17 years old when she took the doll with her on the train to England. It might have reminded her of happy times with her family during her childhood.
Dolls head

It has cracks on its ceramic face, stains on its cloth body and is very fragile. The condition of the doll is a sign of its own journey and Ellen’s love. It may have provided comfort to Ellen as she was forced to flee and travel to England without her family.

"I brought the doll with me to England when I came over on the Kindertransport. It does not have a name, but it has been with me ever since."

These three pieces of silver cutlery are from a set that was owned by Ellen’s family in Germany. The cutlery was sent to America to be housed with relatives for safekeeping. Ellen’s parents hoped that an affidavit would arrive from family members residing in the US to ensure the family’s safe passage to America. It wasn’t processed in time and the family were unable to escape. After the war, the items were retrieved from America.

These, along with the other artefacts, were donated to the National Holocaust Centre and Museum during Ellen’s lifetime.

A selection of family photos. Ellen says: "My father liked pictures of us for his birthday present. So once a year we had to be taken to the photographer!"
Each carries an 'H'
for Herrmann on its handle.

This cutlery is engraved with the letter ‘H’ for Herrmann. The cutlery is embossed with the number 800 with a crescent and a crown meaning it is real silver. The Herrmann family owned a successful business in Königsberg and were upstanding members of the Jewish community. Ellen remembered being laughed at when she came to the UK because the table manners were different.

This tablecloth was given to Ellen by her mother, who had embroidered it. It was Ellen’s favourite.

The tablecloth was sent, along with the cutlery, for safekeeping in America. After the war, the item was retrieved from America.

We always used to have a big embroidered cloth on the table. She used to sit for hours and hours to make it.

Ellen recalling how her mother made the cloth.


In preparation for deportation to concentration camps, Jewish people were forced by Nazi authorities into enclosed districts. Isolated from the general population, the people in the ghettos suffered under miserable living conditions rife with starvation and diseases.

Eisernes Kreuz (Iron Cross)

The Iron Cross was a German military medal. It symbolises Germany’s fight for its national identity in confrontation with Napoleon. Irrespective of social rank, it honoured distinguished service for the good of the nation.


On November 21, 1938, the British parliament decided to accept an unspecified number of children under Nazi persecution into Britain. It was up to various charitable organisations to guarantee their upkeep so that no costs would fall onto the state. Everything happened in great haste and rather improvised. Later on, the rescue effort for Jewish children became known as ‘Kindertransports’ after the German word for children, ‘kinder’.

November Pogrom

The November Pogrom – also known as Kristallnacht – marked the climax of organised, state-sanctioned terror against Jewish people in Germany before the Second World War. Jewish people were robbed, mistreated and murdered across Germany from 7 until 13 November 1938. Everybody could see this violence and destruction, as a good part of it happened in broad daylight.

Buchenwald Concentration Camp

Buchenwald Concentration Camp was established by the Nazis in 1937 and was one of the largest camps in Germany. Jews, Roma people, political prisoners, gay men Jehovah’s Witnesses and prisoners of war were imprisoned at Buchenwald, as well as ‘asocial’ prisoners who were incarcerated due to their inability to find work. Between 1937 and 1945 approximately 250,000 people were imprisoned at Buchenwald, over 56,000 of whom were killed. Many prisoners died due to illness, malnutrition, executions, medical experimentation, and the hardships of slave labour. In January 1945 approximately 10,000 prisoners – mostly Jewish – arrived at the camp after being forced to endure death marches. In early April, as US forces approached the camp, the Nazi paramilitary group SS began to force inmates on further marches out of Buchenwald. The US Army liberated 21,000 prisoners from Buchenwald on 11 April 1945.


Ravensbrück Concentration Camp was built in 1939 and was the largest women’s concentration camp. A small men’s camp was added in April 1941 and a youth camp, Uckermark, became part of Ravensbrück in June 1942. In total around 120,000 women and children and 20,000 men from over 30 different countries were imprisoned at Ravensbrück, including Jewish and Sinti and Roma people. Around 20,000 to 30,000 prisoners died in Ravensbrück, through starvation, from having been experimented on, from being worked to death, or selected for death for being considered too weak to work. A gas chamber was built in January 1945 and approximately 6,000 prisoners were gassed here. Shortly before the end of the war, the International, Danish and Swedish Red Cross evacuated around 7,500 prisoners to Sweden, Switzerland and France. Around 20,000 prisoners were taken on death marches. The Soviet Troops liberated the camp on 30 April 1945 and found around 2,000 prisoners who had been too sick to go on the death marches. 

Auschwitz-Birkenau Concentration and Death Camp

Auschwitz-Birkenau is the most infamous of all Nazi camps and consisted of three main camps, known as Auschwitz I, Auschwitz II – Birkenau and Auschwitz III – Monowitz-Buna. There were also around 45 sub-camps around these sites. Over 1.1 million people were murdered at this site, and over 90% of them were Jewish.

Hartheim Castle Euthanasia Centre

In early 1940, Hartheim Castle in Austria was converted to be used as a killing centre for those with physical or mental disabilities (or those perceived to have these). From May 1940, people were killed using carbon dioxide in gas chambers. It is estimated that around 30,000 people were murdered in Hartheim Castle. 

Ongoing, state-organised persecution of Roma people

Historians estimate that between 200,000 and 500,000 Roma and Sinti (historically often labelled as ‘Gypsies’) people were murdered by the Nazis and their collaborators in what is now called the Roma genocide. Many more were imprisoned, used for forced labour or subject to forced sterilisation and medical experimentation. Roma and Sinti men, women and children were already being targeted for persecution and imprisonment before the Second World War. As the Second World War began, the genocide of Roma and Sinti people intensified – including in occupied territories such as Austria. The persecution of Roma and Sinti and the Roma genocide took place alongside the Holocaust that saw the murder of six million Jews.

Dachau Concentration Camp

Dachau Concentration Camp was established in March 1933, initially to house political opponents. Dachau was used as a model for all later concentration camps. In the 12 years of its existence, over 200,000 people from all over Europe were imprisoned in Dachau, including gay men, Sinti and Roma, ‘asocials’, criminals, Jews and, later, Soviet prisoners of war. Once the Second World War started, living conditions in Dachau drastically worsened. Approximately 41,500 people were murdered in Dachau; one third of these died in the final six months of the war.  Approximately 25,000 prisoners were sent on death marches as Allied troops approached. The camp was liberated by American troops in April 1945. 


The Nazis planned the mass-deporation of European Jews to extermination camps in German-occupied Poland. The Jews were forced to gather at local sites, such as a synagogue or town square, and then crammed onto freight or passenger trains, with limited or no food or sanitary conditions. Journeys often lasted several days, and sometimes they took a few weeks. Many of those packed onto these trains died during the journey to the camps through starvation or overcrowding.