Julius Feldman was born on 24 December 1923, in Kraków, Poland. His family lived in the Podgórze district of the city.
When the Nazis invaded Poland in 1939, Julius and his family were immediately in danger.
Julius was acutely aware of the increasing anti-Jewish measures all around him. As the war, and persecution of Polish Jews, continued, he would feel the impact of both every day, sometimes walking home through deserted streets if there had been a deportation while he’d been at work.
Every day was high risk for the Feldman family, and their resistance was only effective for so long. One morning in 1943, when he was 19, Julius went to work after hiding his mother within the shop that they owned, and when he returned, she was gone. After searching for his father, Julius realised that he, too, had been taken. Julius ran to the next town to try and see the train he knew they would be on pass through, desperate to catch one last glimpse of his beloved parents. Sadly, by the time he arrived, the train had already gone.
Julius went to work after hiding his mother within the shop they owned. When he returned, she was gone
Eventually, Julius, too, was captured and imprisoned at Płaszów concentration camp. He did not survive the Holocaust, and it is believed he was murdered in or around 1943, meaning he was just 19 years old.
KK 11136Work permit number: 175Name: Julius FeldmanDate of birth: 24.12.22Place of birth: KrakowIn the Jewish skilled worker communityWork unit: Glazier
Inside leftPhotograph of Julius FeldmanJulius’ signatureOfficial signature
Inside rightDate: 30.11.1942Stamp reads: Skilled workersKrakow address and telephone numberOfficial signature
This Ausweis card was issued to Julius in 1942 and had been applied for as his family were seeking permission to remain in Kraków.
In his diary, which documents events from 1939 to 1943, Julius writes: “In order to stay in Kraków, you had to submit a petition requesting permission. Those who were accepted received an Ausweis (permit) but those who were rejected had to present themselves for deportation, with a 25-kilogramme parcel.
Things worked out well somehow and my father was among the first to receive an Ausweis. My mother, brother and I got ours some two weeks later.”
Diary and ID card are on display at The National Holocaust Centre and Museum
A residence permit. The permits were granted to those required to stay in Krakow to work. From 30 May 1942, the Nazis implemented systematic deportations from the ghetto for people who did not have an Ausweis card.
Originally a forced labour camp created in 1942, it was expanded over time until eventually it held 20,000 people. Oskar Schindler tried to protect some of these Jewish people from being deported and from the brutality of the camp commandant, Amon Goeth.
The Nazis planned the mass-deporation of European Jews to extermination camps in German-occupied Poland. The Jews were forced to gather at local sites, such as a synagogue or town square, and then crammed onto freight or passenger trains, with limited or no food or sanitary conditions. Journeys often lasted several days, and sometimes they took a few weeks. Many of those packed onto these trains died during the journey to the camps through starvation or overcrowding.